Monday, July 16, 2012
Vanishing Bigfoot and Anecdotal Accounts: Implications and Challenges for Researchers
The Two Big Questions
BIGFOOT EYEWITNESS TESTIMONIES
Early American Legends (BFRO – Bigfoot Field Researchers Organization)
Typical Reports With Interesting Features
A Quickly Vanishing Bigfoot
Atypical Reports With Alarming Implications
Horizon City Monster
Bigfoot’s Invisible Wall
Field Tests from 1975 to Current
Hydrogen Sulfide, Geology, and Bigfoot
Bigfoot Transparency – Actual or Illusion?
Looking Outside of What is Expected
The Electromagnetic Spectrum and Geomagnetics
Bigfoot Intelligence – Where are the Bodies?
References and Notes
The Two Big Questions
There exists two severely important questions – which we hope to address in detail here – that continue to plague investigators, Cryptozoologists, and other researchers who are attempting to explain and find the final evidence that will prove, once and for all, the existence of Bigfoot, Sasquatch, Skunk Apes, Yeti, Yowies, Almas, Kaptars, Mapinguari, and their kind world over. For the Bigfoot researcher who goes into the field (specifically here in the U.S.), and has learned the habits and idiosyncrasies of Bigfoot, collected eye-witness testimonies, hair, feces, and other field samples, made numerous footprint casts, and even spotted Bigfoot themselves, there is little or no doubt left of their obvious existence; but to the skeptic who ridicules the “evidence” and does not do any serious field work or research which would support or falsify that work scientifically, the same two questions are thrown into the face of those who seriously want to expose an irrefutable answer concerning the elusive Bigfoot: Where are the bodies or bones? And… Why do they seem to vanish into thin air before they can be caught? It is my intent to not only discuss some of the reasons why, but also to propose a challenge, along with providing a test that researchers can do in the field when Bigfoot makes his “disappearance.”
Even though there are historical, folkloric, and oral traditional tales existent throughout the nations of the earth, we are still faced with the fact that, to date, not a single one of these giant hairy creatures has been caught alive to be observed, studied, and documented by the experts, and no remains have been found for examination in the laboratory. Truly, these curiosities nag those of us who remain as questioning Bigfoot researchers, but more from the desire within to know and understand, than because of anything the skeptics (and/or "armchair scientists") would say. Hoaxers and outright liars only compound the problems we face. In order to begin finding the answers we must understand the questions, and the creatures that incite them within our minds. We must look at the evidence with an open mind and take ALL the evidence into account, and not just the parts that are acceptable to our own belief systems. To understand where the bodies of Bigfoot and his kind go during or after death, and how they seem to amazingly evaporate from any hold we could possibly put on them while alive may be the key to finding them.
There is evidence, according to worldwide eyewitness testimonies that this creature, although with the appearance of a half-human, half-ape-like face, might be completely different than either humans or apes in not only environment, but also physiology, diet, thinking abilities, and other talents. It is very possible that the reason the best hunters have yet to tow in a Bigfoot body is because Bigfoot are acutely more aware, and more keen, than we previously thought. Perhaps we underestimate these gentle giants immensely. For answers to these problems we will look not only to testimonies for clues, but also to evidence in the field that might help explain some of the strange camouflaging and apparent invisibility/transparency abilities that these musky-smelling hominoids appear to be utilizing.
Please notice, as you read further, that these accounts are varied but all have a few things in common…. Either bad smells associated/not associated with Bigfoot camouflage, unexplainable disappearances, or and outright vanishing in front of the witness(es) by different means. Please also note that the majority of sightings are typically in forested or mountainous areas, near waterways of some kind, and usually on or near fault line areas and/or volcanic/granitic areas. We will go into why this is so, later on. Also realize that even though I recognize that a good majority of “vanishing Bigfoot” just simply run off into the trees, it is the more unusual accounts of them unexplainably vanishing that I am addressing here. Because any good Bigfoot data starts with those who see them, we begin with eyewitness testimonies. But for the record, up front, I am not yet convinced of Bigfoot being a UFO-occupant placed here on earth (some indications could show mimicry however, but that is another subject for another paper).
BIGFOOT EYEWITNESS TESTIMONIES
Early American Legends (BFRO – Bigfoot Field Researchers Organization)
Quote: "This story, I found out later, was based on the Blackwood one... but I suspect Blackwood based his on the Northern U.S./Canadian legends of the Wendigo. The story goes like this: there were these two guys that went canoeing, and they came to a place where they had to portage (carry their canoes overland). They walked through the woods until night fell, and they set up camp. Well, one of the guys woke up in the middle of the night to answer the call of nature, and he saw that the side of the tent was bowed inward, as if someone was leaning on it. But, his buddy was sleeping right next to him. He reached up to touch the tent wall, and it was ice cold. He was so scared, he just lay there until morning, not sleeping. When day came, the thing outside the tent was gone. So, the two guys packed up their gear, and got their canoe, and headed off again. They walked all day, and when the sun was setting, they came upon an old Indian man, holding a human skull and shaking beads in it. He said to him: "You can't stay here, this is Wendigo territory. Get through it as quickly as you can." Of course, being Stupid White Guys ;) they laughed at him, and kept walking. Well, the sun went down, and all of a sudden, somewhere behind them in the woods, they heard this horrible scream. It could only have been the old Indian. They looked at each other, kinda freaked out, and they started walking a little quicker. And then, behind them, they heard this huge, crashing noise like a runaway bulldozer coming through the woods. They looked around, and there was nothing there, but the trees were splintering and crashing down in the path of something horrible and invisible. Well, they dropped their canoe and all their gear and they just ran like hell, and kept running until they dropped from sheer exhaustion. And the thing behind them came howling up -- and stopped and crashed around for a while in frustration, but it couldn't get them because they had reached the far edge of its territory". (1)
Typical Reports With Interesting Features
Data from “Chronological List of Bigfoot Sightings (1818-1980)" - paraphrased
c. 1930 at Kwaltwa Kitasu Bay, Swindle Is., BC by Tom Brown. Bigfoot seen in shallows at night; screamed when shot at, but no body to be found next day.
1950’s by two men camping at Pine Barrens, NJ. Two separate sightings of Bigfoot at night, one from only a few yards; 'overpowering foul odor' noticed
Spring 1957 two hunters at Big Cypress Swamp, FL. As they slept in hammocks, a Bigfoot stood and watched them. They awoke and saw it was tall and dark with glowing eyes. After about 2 minutes it walked away.
In 1964 at Point Isabel, Clermont County, OH, Mr. & Mrs. Lew Lister were sitting in parked car. They saw Bigfoot, which changed shape, and then vanished.
July 1965 Jack Taylor at Nr Butedale, BC. Man fishing saw two Bigfoot creatures on shore and another in the water swimming strongly.
Summer 1966 Nr Anclote River, Elfers, FL. Bigfoot seen by Ralph “Bud” Chambers. It was standing in trees and had a 'rancid, putrid odor'.
Summer 1966 in Nr Richland, WA, Greg Pointer, Roger True, Tom Thompson, Carl & Jim Franklin, John McKnight, Alvin Anderson, Selby Green, Roger Howard, Bob McDonald, Ron Blackburn all witness an 8-ft, whitish-gray Bigfoot; was repeatedly shot at with no effect.
Oct 1966 in Albuquerque, NM, Clifford McGuire & family. Over a period of several weeks a 5-ft Bigfoot that cried like a baby roamed round their property, and the radio would stop when it was near.
Sept 1967 . Carol Davis from Nr Bellingham, WA saw Bigfoot wading out of the sea.
1970 two fisherman in Lake nr Priest Lake, ID saw Bigfoot swimming across a lake.
1972 a rancher from Nr North Fork of Logy Creek, WA. A foul-smelling Bigfoot approached camp fire and stood for several minutes before shuffling away; dogs paralyzed with fear.
May 29, 1973 Anthony Dorsey Nr Sykesville, MD made first sighting of Bigfoot with luminous eyes. This was after a UFO was seen to drop an object into a nearby reservoir. Other people reported seeing an 8-ft black-haired Bigfoot.
August 24, 1973 a man from Herminie, PA saw a 7-ft Bigfoot 30 ft away in his garden, it smelled like 'rotten eggs.' He went to get a gun but it had gone when he returned.
Early Oct, 1973 Nr Galveston, IN. Jeff Martin or Jim Mays (one name is probably a pseudonym, as the initials are the same) saw Bigfoot on 2 occasions, also lights or UFOs in the same area.
Feb 6, 1974 in Uniontown, PA a woman & son-in-law Bigfoot disappeared when shot at; others seen close by, plus a UFO.
On June 19, 1980 Ray Quay in Russells Point, OH. Part-time police officer saw 'big and hairy' creature near barn, smelling like 'limburger cheese on a hot muffler'. (2) A Quickly Vanishing Bigfoot
Quote: “Submitted by witness on Wednesday, May 22, 2002.
DATE: late Nov. 1990-92
COUNTY: Red River
NEAREST TOWN: Manchester, Texas
OBSERVED: I was deer hunting 10-12 years ago in late Nov. I was on a deer lease in Red River County. I was sitting on a stool and observed deer scrapes on trees along a creek bed. I was watching for these deer to approach. After I had been sitting there for an hour or so I turned my head and noticed what looked like an 8 or 9-foot tall stump that wasn't there earlier. It was approximately 120-130 yards away. I raised my deer rifle and looked through the scope at it. Through my 6X scope, I was able to see it as close up as if it were 30 feet away from me. It was looking right at me. It was a large ape-like creature. I kept it in my sight for 15-20 minutes. It never moved. I then heard a snap off to my left. I turned my head to observe where this noise came from. I didn't see anything. When I turned back to the creature, it was gone! It had been standing in grass that was knee-high to me, about a foot and a half to 2 feet tall. I feel that it couldn't have moved away in the short period of time my attention was drawn away. I feel that it dropped down in the grass to avoid detection. I feel that the snapping noise was made by another creature to divert my attention from the other one. At this time, I got up and left everything but my rifle and backed out of the area. I had this thing dead to rights in my scope but couldn't shoot because I did not feel threatened.”
Atypical Reports With Alarming Implications
Horizon City Monster
A report of a possible Bigfoot camouflage effect is based on the Horizon City Monster account by Ms. Montanez who lives in the desert east of El Paso, TX. She first spotted the Bigfoot hunched over a dead coyote by the edge of the highway out in the desert. As she drove closer the creature stood up, walked up a mesquite mound and jogged down the other side. She said his head was originally taller than the mound, and yet he kept appearing to go down and down and down (step-wise), into the ground! Although Montanez could not see the Bigfoot actually entering the ground (due to the small mound being in the way), she insisted that there had to have been a cave it entered. She left and returned the following day to find the coyote gone, any footprints swiped by the winds, and no apparent cave entrance! She then concluded that the Bigfoot must've had a trap door hidden under the dirt which he entered, although she could not find it. Realize that Ms. Montanez was attempting to rationalize what she saw to explain an unexplainable "disappearance" of Bigfoot. The biggest question is not necessarily did he go into the ground but how did he make her THINK he went into the ground if he did not? Or better yet, where did he actually go? (3)
Quote: “After returning [p. 31] from a long hike, the group was stunned when a nine-to-ten foot Sasquatch stepped out in front of them a short distance away. Then, in the twinkling of an eye, the Bigfoot completely disappeared in front of the witnesses! The witnesses insisted that it literally dematerialized! Mrs. Jeffrey reported that she was so awed at what she saw, that when they returned home, she did not leave the house for two weeks. The woman was in such a total state of shock that she did not return to the area for some time.” (4)
This account is from Larry Kelm whom I personally spoke with during a BFRO (Bigfoot Field Researchers Organization) field trip in Ruidoso, NM.
Quote: “In the fall of 1980 I ran a small business as a construction contractor in Eugene, Oregon. During the slow times and in-between jobs I would don my backpack and hiking boots and disappear into the mountains for weeks at a time enjoying the peaceful solitude of long hikes. At that time I was single and didn’t answer to anyone so I was free to do what I wanted when I wanted. On the trip in question I decided to hike the old Mollala Indian trail that followed the ridge tops from Saddle Blanket Mountain to Oakridge, one of the Native American’s favorite summer camps and trading centers. It was a beautiful August day, two days into the hike (I expected to be gone about two weeks), when literally out of the blue the most terrifying thing that ever happened to me in my life occurred. It would change my perspective of reality forever.
“I was walking along the trail enjoying the strong breeze and bright sunshine when, in the middle of a step, everything around me started to turn gray and blurry. The only way I can describe it was as if suddenly I was looking through someone else’s prescription sunglasses. I finished the step and started another. Every inch I moved forward the darkness increased and the gray blurring turned into a jumble of shapes that made no sense. I then seemed to pass a barrier and everything started to return back into focus when my foot reached the ground on the second step everything around me had changed. Day had turned into night and there was no wind. All the Douglas Fir and pine trees had been replaced with thick jungle-like growth. The cool thin mountain air was replaced with humid thick air. There were no stars in the sky, but there was a diffused light that let me see everything clearly, however I couldn’t tell what the light source was.
“As often happens when the human body receives a massive dose of adrenaline the entire incident appeared like it was in slow motion and even though I was only there for a second or two I had time to observe my surroundings. The silence was broken by [a] continuous high pitched keening sound, and I was nearly overwhelmed with a sense of fear and danger. My momentum caused me to take one more step before stopping in my tracks.
“It was at this point, I heard a whispered "Gotcha" over my right shoulder. I couldn’t tell if I heard it with my ears or inside my head. The word wasn’t directed at me but something said the word quietly to itself. I was so terrified I actually felt my heart stop for a moment. That whispered word is what saved me. I opened my mouth and gasped in a huge gush of thick air and recoiled backward in the same footsteps I had entered wherever I was. As I threw myself backward, I looked over my right shoulder. A dark colored hairy right hand and arm was reaching for my throat over my shoulder. The hand had pale ivory spade-shaped fingernails. The nails looked clean and almost had a manicured look to them. The thumb was placed lower (towards the wrist) on the hand than a human’s is. Both hand and arm were thin and powerful looking and both were covered with thick coarse black hair.
“I got a good look at it because the thumbnail grazed my neck (it did not break the skin) as I moved backwards. As I continued backwards, the hand clutched where my neck had been a split second before and it seemed to fade off into the distance as I returned through the Portal.
“I took two more steps backwards and everything reversed itself from what had just happened. The world around me became lighter, the fir and pines gradually came back into view and by the third step I was back on Saddle Blanket Mountain.
“I continued to move backwards in terror, and as I did, I observed that where I had just come from was a shimmering oval patch of air about the size of a large door. The woods behind it looked like it was under water. By the fifth backward step the shimmering area seemed to just evaporate and everything was back to normal. By then my lungs had nearly burst from the volume of air I had inhaled during the huge gasp I had just taken. My body felt like it was on fire from the adrenaline surge. I spun around and ran back down the trail as fast as my legs could carry me, and didn’t stop until I reached my truck. I was nearly two days getting to that place and about three hours getting back.
“On my way home I was absolutely horrified at the thought of what would happen if I were to drive my truck into something like that. It had been a trap pure and simple. Whatever it was that tried to kill me somehow kept the Portal hidden from me on the way in, and I didn’t actually see it until I was back out again. I had terrible nightmares for years, and still haven’t come to grips with what happened. My fingers are trembling and the hair is standing up on the nape of my neck as I write this.” (5)
Bigfoot’s Invisible Wall
There is one important account I’d like to share about a southern New Mexico man I interviewed on July 7, 2004, which corroborates Larry Kelm’s experience about Bigfoot and portals. When we went camping that weekend I noticed immediately that the area was rich in granodiorite rock (a plutonic rock which is a granite-diorite mix – you will see why this is important later on), and that it is located on the rainshadow (desert) side of a mountain, adjacent to the Ruidoso, NM area where a “hot spot” of Bigfoot activity is currently being investigated by numerous Bigfoot researchers, (including the BFRO). I directly went to the campground host where we were camping at and asked him point blank, “How many Bigfoot sightings have you heard of around here?.” I asked, not IF, but “how many” on purpose, because everything in me told me that there was no way a Bigfoot sighting wouldn’t have occurred in that area, and linguistics (wording) of the questions to a stranger can make or break the answer that’s given on such a touchy subject. I figured I’d hear him tell me of some incident that some campers had seen or heard of once, but instead the campground host himself told me of his own sighting he had. This is what he told me…
In summer of either 2000 or 2001 John Bohannon witnessed a creature he called Bigfoot on a small ridge next to a hill located just west of the Three Rivers Campground, and lies north of Alamogordo, NM (west of Ruidoso on the west side of the mountain). During daylight hours John was traveling east on the dirt road in his truck when he glanced over to his right and noticed a tall hairy ape-like creature walking in the same direction as he was driving. It was taller than the cholla cacti nearby (estimated by John to be at least 8' tall) and it looked toward John as it kept walking. It's arms hung longer than it's knees, and had short brown hair with a reddish tinge all over it's body. The only long hair was underneath it's forearms, and the shortest hair was at it's lower back/buttocks area. With knees slightly bent, but otherwise standing upright, the long-striding creature kept walking eastwardly, still staring at John, for approximately 100' until it seemed to vanish into thin air. A juniper tree was near where the Bigfoot creature disappeared but the creature did not appear to walk behind it. Because of this strange aspect John thought it must've walked into an invisible wall of some kind, but was unsure of just what happened (portal or some sort of camouflage?). John's best description of the Bigfoot’s face was that of a "Neanderthal" being neither quite ape, nor quite human, but like a combination of both (6).
Field Tests from 1975 to Current
Selections from Jon-Erik Beckjord,BA,MBA,The Bigfoot Investigation Project
Quote: “We moved to Bellingham, WA. on Nov 1975 and settled in on the Lummi Indian Res. [Reservation] where dozens of sightings were happening…… We traversed the entire res over and over, checking into the most remote and never-visited rainforest in the center…… We made another sighting near Ft. Lewis where the Bigfoot disappeared in front of us. It really did. Range- ten feet….. We found at that site deep tracks (we heard them being made) that run at 6 ft strides down to barbed wire fence --- and no, zero, none, tracks in the sea of mud (200 ft) on the other side. Where did it go? Wings? Helicopter? Blimp? We heard nothing…… On the res, in snow, we found tracks that started from under a snowed-over bush, that meandered 200 ft, crossed a road, and slowly morphed into human boots, ending at a house. Nobody home. One very large humanoid hand print was in the snow as well….. Back again near Tacoma, (Puyallup) we found 210 barefoot tracks starting from another snowed-over bush that also meandered in an open field. They then 'ended" or quit, in snow, with NO trees, no rocks and no dry land to jump to. Did it fly?????? Or what?……. We found hunters who had shot at BFs directly, with NO EFFECT……. We played baby scream tapes and a grey fox-being-thing came out and looked at us askance and shortly after we experienced tremendous internal fear as the sun set, and we zoomed out at 70 mph., sweating and scared. The message, a form of telepathy, was GET OUT OF HERE!……. On a side trip north, by Lake Stevens, we went out with witnesses and one woman alone answering the call of nature, said there was something invisible next to her. We found 16 inch tracks in dirt and snow all around the area…… On other trips, we were paralyzed when BF came close to us. And released when they left…….. We had smells come to us that changed into three types, one after another. Projected at us. We interviewed two kidnapees. One experienced telepathy, from him to them, and later, he found they answered his questions into his head, without he having to speak in words.” (7)
Hydrogen Sulfide, Geology, and Bigfoot
From this tiny handful (out of hundreds and hundreds in the U.S. and Canada alone) of Bigfoot sightings we have seen witnesses being subjected to numerous phenomena; however, we will be covering a few aspects on the putrid smells next to see how it might (or not) fit in with Bigfoot invisibility (just bear with me here). Within the Bigfoot research community the reason for the horrible stench is generally thought of as an outward sign of irritation, threat, or fear, very similar to what a gorilla will do in stressful situations. The smell that waifs off of a Bigfoot and far into the countryside is often described as “extremely strong,” “very potent,” “permeating the nostrils” (sometimes into the next day(s) long after the smell in the air is gone), with people claiming “it smelled like a mix between skunk and wet dog,” “like rotting flesh,” or “rotting garbage,” “extremely terrible body odor,” “urine and feces,” or even “sulfur,” or “rotten eggs.” Many have posed the question as to what it is (physiologically speaking) that causes such a strong odor to emanate from the huge body of Bigfoot, even though the accompanying smell only incorporates up to 30% to 50% of the typical sighting reports that come in to researcher’s hands (8). This sulfur, or rotten-egg-like odor, is often found in nature, otherwise known as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) (9).
Hydrogen sulfide, or H2S, is an acidic gas with some interesting properties, and some fascinating implications… at least when it comes to Bigfoot. In large concentrations, this gas is toxic to aerobic life. Before we get into any hypothesis about hydrogen sulfide and any so-called disappearance of Bigfoot we’d like to fill you in on a little bit of what H2S is all about. When hydrogen sulfide comes into contact with the skin or lungs, it is absorbed into the body (10). H2S can be found in the atmosphere, near hot springs, oil deposits, combustion of fossil fuels, volcanic eruptions, and caves, along with any forest which has organic (plant or animal) decomposing substances, as well as being found near fault line areas (radio signals also build up at fault lines) and earthquake zones (11). In green sulfur bacteria, the electron donor is H2S or S (sulfur) (12). Plants, animals, and microorganisms regularly transmute the first 20 elements of the periodic table at the sub-atomic level using enzymes and hormones, with hydrogen or oxygen as the primary catalyst (13). Well water that contains high sulfur content has that well known rotten-egg smell as well (14). H2S is found all over the earth, including in the human body. People who lack an adequate amount of certain enzymes may excrete more H2S from their sweat glands, bowels, and skin (15). Within any given ecosystem we have a potential for H2S to appear. H2S is extremely abundant in karst (limestone) caves sometimes producing snottites (16).
As a recap, and to accentuate my next point, please realize that H2S is not only commonly found near areas of geothermal activity, volcanism, active plate tectonics, and fault lines, but also exposed or subsurface granitic plutons (areas with granite rock), mines (open pit quarries or shafts), water wells, underground streams, underground caverns or caves (karst caves or igneous rock caves, sandstone, and gypsum caves as well), forested and mountainous locations, etc. but according to my research, and that of others, it has been evident that BIGFOOT IS OFTEN FOUND IN THESE SAME AREAS (17)! Why? One reason may be what they have in common; hence many have been looking at the H2S connection. But is H2S really the answer we seek? How might it fit in with Bigfoot invisibility?
Some have proposed that feces getting caught in the hair, or a sudden onset of diarrhea or gas (although to our knowledge, no evidence of diarrhea left behind has been found yet, nor have any cases come forward, to my knowledge, indicating noises of excessive flatulence) because of startling Bigfoot into a colon spasm – indicating a nervous disorder or a highly sensitive nervous system, not unlike Irritable Bowel Syndrome in humans – might be the source of the H2S smell (18). It is likely to assume a natural musky or unkempt smell, as with many animals, but it is more likely that the smell given off by Bigfoot is purposefully induced. A diet high in hydrogen sulfide-producing foods, or being highly adapted to living in areas which produces higher amounts of H2S, causing higher bodily absorption, may be only part of the cause (and worth studying in-depth), including any possible glandular issues (apes have such glands) where H2S secretions are produced when stressed, but there are some indications that the odor may be used for more than just a warning to those who are within close proximity (19).
One idea that is circulating among some researchers is that Bigfoot may actually be (using H2S?) causing mental paralysis, or temporary “hypnosis” within the minds of the animals or people nearby, in order to escape more readily into the cover of the night or forest (20). Could H2S be the reason, rather than a psychic ability? Of course, one would think, why use a smell in order to run away when Bigfoot’s gigantic size and strength alone could overpower even the largest, strongest man in 10 states? Perhaps, like pacifist gorillas, the tendency to bluff, rather than attack, may be the answer. This tells us a lot about his nature, although when considering that Bigfoot might be causing a temporary state of “suspended animation” or some form of “hypnosis” or “altered consciousness” via mental confusion in those who inhale the H2S (along with any other non-odorous gaseous mixes that may coincide), it could prove to be a great way to “camouflage” ones self. This would serve to make a quick escape and avoid further detection, or any possible trap by predators or hunters or anyone/anything else that might bring harm.
Of course, yet another hypothesis exists that Bigfoot is psychic and can perform mind control over humans, much like the legends about Native American (or other) Shamans who affect the mind of the observer to trick them into believing they have seen them shape-shift into an animal; however, until Bigfoot is able to demonstrate this under controlled conditions then people will hardly consider it as proof, even though hundreds of witnesses claim it is true (21).
As for the induction of altered states in passersby via H2S, who under its influence may not realize the passage of time, or that their mental awareness has slowed, it is interesting to note that H2S-induced hibernation has been achieved in a non-hibernating mammal (mice), transforming the mouse from a warm-blooded creature to a cold-blooded state of near suspended animation with no heartbeat, respiration or other signs of life. In effect, the mice purposefully exposed to H2S were operating at about 10% their normal rate. Better yet, after 6 hours of exposure the mice were normal once returned to normal air (22). If Bigfoot were using H2S to induce sleep in his victims, or himself, I think there would be evidences of such, but so far none has surfaced (no sleeping bodies of people or Bigfoot during encounters).
A twist on the “hypnosis” idea involves the positive ions that are given off as the H2S is emitted (23). The rotten smell associated with so many sightings is likely not that of the fear Bigfoot may be feeling (although it can be overwhelming for those nearby), but rather that of a chemical reaction, which would omit a sulfuric smell along with the discharge of positive hydrogen ions. Most people are aware of their opposite, negative ions, those “healthy” ions which are given off in nature and especially during thunderstorms where one gets that “good feeling” and “higher energy” or a “sense of well being” (24). Positive ions given off by Bigfoot, however, could give the feeling of “ill health,” or a “bad feeling,” would seem to drain your (bodily-electrical) energy and even make you dizzy, disoriented, or even sick (25).
Here’s the clincher, and one that many have overlooked. Understand that H2S is highly lethal – many times more deadly than cyanide gas, if taken in under high concentrations (26). The question must be asked is why, if H2S is so lethal, and can make a bystander so overpowered, does it not asphyxiate the Bigfoot himself? Could the answer be that he is already so highly adapted to H2S in environment, possibly his diet, and the biological absorption and emission of the gas that it just simply isn’t a noticeable problem for him, and likely an advantage instead? Realize that H2S itself kills the olfactory nerves. If Bigfoot takes in and gives off these high amounts of H2S then it is likely his sense of smell is diminished, if not completely gone (either in youth by exposure, or by generational adaptation, or both), so it could very well prove to be a mutually beneficial quality since putting off such a putrid stench greatly affects potentially dangerous animals or humans who are nearby, without even realizing he, himself, reeks in the process. Additionally, with a substantial drop in olfactory ability his other senses might likely compensate for the loss by an increase in visual and auditory (making him a keen hunter or observer), kinesthetic (feeling his world, perhaps even a greater sensitivity to electromagnetic or other earth energies), and may be even abilities in his psyche which are mutually advantageous. Taste, however, is most often linked to the ability to smell (at least in humans) so mere hunger, texture, and the sight of food may play a higher role than taste, in this kind of case. Perhaps Bigfoot’s unique physiological adaptations have made him a king in his own domain.
Appearances can be deceiving though, as some would say. There are those who would claim that the H2S factor is not what it seems, and that Bigfoot actually puts off an energy force field of some type that affects those who walk into it (or whom it envelops) towards uncomfortable and even debilitating feelings. Interestingly enough, the symptoms include a huge sense of fear or danger, accompanied by dizziness, weakness, feeling ill, nausea, and the like (personal account related verbally, one of many out there). It seems that whether this is an actual energy field produced by Bigfoot, or a psychic type of phenomenon, or even from the smell of H2S or positive ions, the end effect is real and overwhelming to those who have experienced it.
Bigfoot Transparency – Actual or Illusion?
Besides all of these potential forms of camouflage, defense mechanisms, or apparent transparency, there are ideas circulating among researchers that take on an interest much closer to physics and quantum mechanics than does chemistry, biology, or H2S-promoting habitats. One such idea put out there, by a co-researcher, Pearl Jo Prihoda, is what she calls (a combo-name) Photosynthetic - Piezoelectric Induced Transparency (PPIT), where Bigfoot actually is able to become invisible to the naked eye (27). Not saying that PPIT is directly responsible for the disappearing act of Bigfoot, but she concludes that it is very similar to electromagnetically induced transparency, except with speculation that this may be a natural occurring event, with the right external forces, therefore being a possible explanation for a biological process for Bigfoot transparency. Considering fault lines, volcanism, and other electromagnetic phenomena being abundant in certain areas (28), not to mention that Bigfoot is known to act very strange during thunderstorms and the electromagnetic activity associated with it (verbal account by Bigfoot witness), this Bigfoot transparency might well be a geologically related and coinciding event rather than by “magic” or something supernatural. Realize, even though PPIT-like transparency is based on the premise for an entity to “appear to disappear” (illusion) rather than to “actually disappear”, either form can still be scientifically deduced.
Other interpretations and ideas include waves in physics, where they combine with other waves (harmonics) to allow a process for passage through matter. Light exists as a photon and as a wave. As a photon it interacts with other matter, but as wave it passes through matter. Some atoms (i.e. matter), such as iron and copper, can be easily magnetized. Other atoms, such as carbon and oxygen, are more difficult to magnetize. Light, on the other hand, can be magnetized as a wave, but not as a photon particle.
Quote: "A team of 20 physicists from four institutions has literally made something from nothing, creating particles of matter from ordinary light for the first time." Source: University of Rochester News, September 17, 1997, http://www.rochester.edu/news/show.php?id=747
Of course, with statements like these we realize that the laws of thermodynamics prohibit “something” actually being made from “nothing,” however we do realize that what they are saying is that the energy given off from photons (light) is used to form mass in the laboratory setting (29). It’s merely a reversal of what we are used to seeing in our visible world, but certainly not any less possible from a scientific standpoint. It is this reversal of energy to matter, and also going from matter to energy that is the point here in the very plausible explanation of how Bigfoot might be “disappearing.” In reality he may be just transmuting via PPIT-like occurrences, or something similar; but this type of research is still fairly new and highly speculative concerning any biological entity, so we will leave it there to sit in your subconscious for now.
We have to admit that Bigfoot ACTUALLY disappearing, rather than just GIVING THE ILLUSION of disappearing seems like a leap in faith, or even “reaching” for answers, but we must keep in mind that as science continues to advance, things that used to be considered “impossible,” or “magic,” or even as “witchcraft” are now being explained and understood via molecular biology, quantum physics, and a host of other scientific disciplines. And IF Bigfoot is able to induce some form of invisibility via a biological process (yet unknown to mankind) due to his unique physiology and environment, we have to ask the question on whether it is a natural inborn ability (an adaptation based on some very specific selective pressures), or some form of ancient wisdom rediscovered (or passed on), or something else entirely? Either way, we are reminded by hundreds upon hundreds of reliable eye-witness testimonies that Bigfoot not only somehow continually escapes being caught, but that they often do appear to just “disappear,” sometimes when people are looking straight at them! Footprints, likewise, often stop in their tracks, even within snow and soft dirt. If Bigfoot is not literally “vanishing” (leaving) then could they be inducing transparency and then jumping/leaping from that point on (tracks then would start again further away), or brushing/covering their tracks (in some cases) to give the illusion of disappearing? When tracks like this end in an empty field and the trackway does not pick up again, anywhere, then I tend to lean towards explanations linked to Bigfoot’s unique physiology, chemistry, and choice of environmental localities (high in H2S, volcanic, etc.) that might be imposing a unified cause/selective pressure for induced transparency, or some other kind of unexpected, or as yet undiscovered explanation. No one claims to know the answers yet, but we can claim to be broad-minded enough to look for them!
Looking Outside of What is Expected
With this information on environmental factors under our belts, it brings us directly back to volcanic and fault line areas, and more, such as hot springs, oil deposits, and caves, swamps, sinkholes, along with any forest which has decomposing organic substances. Not only are we reminding the reader that Bigfoot is typically associated with these areas and organic materials/smells but there is yet another hypothesis out there concerning Bigfoot that we feel could easily be ignored, but also, to be fair to others in the fringe sciences, should not. This is the possible paranormal (some prefer to call it “extranormal”) aspect of Bigfoot (30).
Now before you run for the hills because the word “paranormal” just rang in your head, the biggest question regarding any possibility of a paranormal aspect of Bigfoot is, WHAT IS PARANORMAL? The direct meaning is “outside of normal,” but then what is “normal”? Normal is the average between extremes. Normal is what is expected in society; so in this case paranormal could mean OUTSIDE OF WHAT IS EXPECTED. Also realize that expectation by itself is a phenomenon of the human psyche, and a rather interesting one at that because it involves the training of our minds to accept repeated information; hence, how we are TAUGHT to believe, or what we consider as comfortable, or “right,” and with anything outside of that comfort-zone hitting us as “wrong.” Expectation can help us to rationalize any possible future outcome and test it to see if what occurs is what we expected to happen. If so, we are elated, and our expectations confirmed, but if not… well consequently, expectation can also backfire by the same means, causing a young female lover to be greatly disappointed in her boyfriend who falls short of her expectations, or people to fall away from religion (or Bigfoot research) if the answers they seek do not get answered according to their expectations. The list could go on and on. So what I say to the reader here is, “Consider new possibilities.” I am also saying that perhaps our expectations of Bigfoot haven’t been met because we have been expecting something that is not meant to happen (i.e. a fresh and intact Bigfoot carcass), or we have been asking the wrong questions, or are listening in the wrong frequency, or just simply looking in the wrong places. Let us look outside of what is expected! Let us put aside what we have been trained to believe. Let us, just for a moment, look outside of the normal, to the paranormal, and see what we may find.
Bigfoot and his kind are already (based on the explanation above) in the paranormal category (according to some), but those in scientific fields, who hold an open mind, are realizing more and more that many things “paranormal,” or “supernatural,” are quickly being able to be explained scientifically, from things like black triangle crafts (UFO’s) appearing to defy the Doppler law (in fact it is “reverse Doppler”) and aircraft that travel at Mach 6 without creating the sonic boom (atmospheric compression), and other previously unknown, and supposedly “unbelievable” phenomena (31). We must keep in mind that a mere couple hundred years ago things like holograms, mini-computers and worldwide electronic and/or wireless communications, exploration of space, weather-monitoring satellites, infrared vision night scopes, and other technological advances would have seemed like “magic”, so it may be that phenomena which seem to defy science or elude us today (since technology is really in its infancy) will all be rectified via science in our near (or far) future. This goes for transparency of biological entities, teleportation (like “beaming up” in the TV series Star Trek), portals, time travel, and the like. UFO sightings and encounters are long known (at least in certain circles) to be associated with these H2S, volcanic/granitic and fault line areas, one example being the abundant UFO activity down near the active Popocatepetl volcano in Mexico City, Mexico, most often exposed via television and other media by Investigator Jaime Maussan. (32)
Remember that in many Bigfoot sightings (above) there are reports of these creatures simply "disappearing” or “dematerializing,” as in the Horizon City Monster account where the witness, Ms. Montanez stated that the Bigfoot walked straight down into the ground. Did he actually go down into the ground (no visible cave entrance or trap doors were found) or did he simply give the appearance of such? Better yet, did he truly disappear, or was it just illusion? Were magnetic fields involved in some way? Chemical actions/reactions based on a unique physiology? A psychic ability? A portal? Remember the account from Three Rivers, NM where John Bohannon saw a Bigfoot walking on a short ridge parallel to his truck who then “walked into an invisible wall” and all at once disappeared. Also note that in both this account, and the Larry Kelm reporting of walking into a Bigfoot portal and back out again that strong H2S smells were not present (although moist jungle smells were). Although this could falsify the claimed H2S effects of “hypnosis” or such, it does not fully explain why these type of cases of alleged Bigfoot transparency are still occurring.
I have read, experienced, and learned a lot on Bigfoot possibilities both in the field and by interviewing witnesses, etc., as to whether they are real, or all hoaxes (this notion is just simply ignorance, in my opinion), or “something else” entirely. One intriguing culturally-related view out there is that Bigfoot is part of the earth spirit group, or fae (faerie realm), an inter-dimensional being, or spirit-like being, who deals with the earth energies of destruction and death, as well as regeneration (hence, the symbology of them showing up in volcanic and plutonic or rift zones where igneous/magmatic activity is prevalent, as well as fault line zones (indicative of sudden change or alteration of the earth)) (33). Many Native American groups have long held this type of view, as have those of Celtic/Druidic origins. The belief is that to get involved with this type of creature is to cross into a territory where one does not belong, and that it is best left alone. Another view is that seeing one of these creatures will bring tragedy, loss, or sudden change in ones life. If a creature is seen, then it is considered a gift, or an omen, but again, not one to be messed with. Others have claimed to have had personal conversations and long-term friendships with Bigfoot and their kind, as well as other earth spirits such as faeries, sprites, brownies, and the like. The inter-dimensional view is one that includes such things as portals (doorways in/out of other unseen realms), psychic phenomena, and even abductions into those realms, some of which one may go into and never return. It is considered both literal (physical) as well as spiritual (nonphysical), incorporating both realms into one reality, although alternating. How many reports are there of people who go missing and are never found?
Time travel of entities is also another possibility if one is inclined to research in that direction (34). Another option could be windows or “time gaps” where a rip in the space-time continuum (reminiscent of sci-fi movies) is allowing certain people to see something from the past or future temporarily meshing with our present reality and then returning. John Bohannon not only saw the Bigfoot on the ridge but the Bigfoot also looked straight at him, indicating a two-way “vision” so to speak. In effect, if footprints or physical evidence are left behind in cases like these then there is obviously more than just some kind of “vision” happening here, and instead a direct 3-D reality. If time portals exist then how are they occurring? Is there someone (Bigfoot? Other?) in charge of opening or closing them at will? Are they indeed TIME portals, or yet another option… the involvement of the electromagnetic spectrum? (35)
The Electromagnetic Spectrum and Geomagnetics
To learn more about the electromagnetic/light spectrum aspects of Bigfoot transparency we can look to other “things” which are known to disappear via the light spectrum. Many of you may remember the 11 unidentified flying objects (invisible to the naked eye) that were tracked on May 11, 2004 via Mexico’s military infrared (IR) equipment, caught on camera, and played back to the millions of watchers around the world via television (36). Note that it is speculated that Bigfoot, mostly nocturnal in activity, can see in IR, since deer and other animals in the wild have looked straight at hidden cameras that use IR technology (37). There are also other examples of alleged invisibility: UAP (Unidentified Aerial Phenomena – a.k.a. UFOs) or AOP (Anomalistic Observational Phenomena, which can include Bigfoot) have been documented by Dr. Bruce Cornet with photographs of UAP diving into the earth or passing through trees in the Pine Bush, NY area (38). Cornet has also photographed a C-5 military aircraft disappearing and reappearing in an apparent unscheduled test while landing (39).
Quote from Dr. Cornet: “If the geomagnetic anomalies are caused by magnetic iron deposits within granitic intrusions, then an association between most AOP activity on the map and granitic intrusions is implied. Why would there be such an association? There are several possible reasons:
“1) AOP lights are really Earth lights, and there is some unusual and as yet unexplained phenomenon occurring between the atmosphere and iron-rich deposits in the ground.
“2) If the AOP represent intelligently controlled craft using an unknown or poorly understood source of energy, the use of iron-bearing (mildly magnetic) granitic intrusions for underground dwellings might be due to structurally- and electromagnetically- desired qualities of that rock as wall material for underground chambers. One could argue that surrounding fissile black shales of the Ordovician Snake Hill Formation make notoriously poor wall material due to their poor tensile strength in planes of cleavage. Therefore, the preferred type of rock in the valley for excavation would be the granitic masses.
“3) Entrances to underground dwellings are intentionally located where geomagnetic anomalies occur at the surface as a means of camouflage. If the brightening of a plasma envelope around an AOP has something to do with opening a portal to an underground chamber, there may be residual effects that can be detected magnetically. The association of entrances with natural geomagnetic patterns could be for both physical and psychological camouflage, given the propensity of humans to accept "rational" or acceptable explanations over an explanation which would challenge dogma and beliefs.” (40)
Yet another view… Like Bigfoot “disappearing,” UFO’s also have been spotted on radar, then dropped down under the ocean’s surface only to be tracked by sonar, then coming above water again tracked by radar once again, suddenly transferring their frequency to ultraviolet (UV) and/or infrared (IR) and hence, disappearing (verbal accounts given in person). They’ve also been seen “diving into the sides of mountains” (even mountains made of granite) on numerous occasions and not crashing, as well as flying into clouds and not coming out the other side despite the cloud shrinking and fading away with there being no sign of a craft of any kind afterwards (verbal accounts given in person). Where are they going? The answer on these accounts may lie in the visible and invisible parts of the light spectrum. Ultraviolet (UV) and Infrared (IR) are two of the areas of the spectrum which UFO craft are well known to enter into (41). Because our eyes cannot see in these areas of the light spectrum they would appear to “disappear” when moving into that part of the spectrum, even though they are still there! This is a type of camouflage, or transparency/invisibility/vanishing ability, but is easily explainable through science and having the proper equipment. Perhaps, in the field of Bigfoot research, more cameras with these types of “sight” are needed. If we have the right “eyes to see” then what disappeared will be seen, provided the vanishing of Bigfoot is an illusion and not an actual disintegration from our dimension.
The same UV/IR rules apply when it comes to radio waves, which are also part of the light spectrum, including extremely low frequency (ELF) and very low frequency (VLF). For anyone who has heard of “natural radio” (sounds picked up in ELF/VLF called “whistlers,” and other popping and clicking noises, etc. (42)) then you might also be familiar with the research into Bigfoot likely giving off similarly low frequencies in ELF/VLF ranges to affect those nearby, called infrasound (43). These are energies that you can physically FEEL in your body and, if given off with certain intent, often sparks deep fear within people. Elephants and other animals also use these low frequencies to speak to each other across long distances and to each other via pounding the ground with their feet (44). Consequently Bigfoot also has ground-pounding behaviors, especially when giving warnings to someone they don’t want in the area (45). It may also serve as a function of warning – as with elephants – to warn others of their kind about impending disaster, such as a volcanic eruption, earthquake, tsunami, or some other “underworld” (below-the-surface) activity. This aspect, being part of the light spectrum causes us to question just how much of the spectrum (on the UV or IR or in ELF/VLF) that Bigfoot may also be utilizing. Bigfoot’s often red-glowing eyes (seemingly with or without a light source to reflect against it, which concerning the “without” applies a completely different set of rules) may be indicative of infrared night-vision and why he most often roams at night compared to the daytime (46). A diet high in taurine may also contribute to night vision, as well as other factors (47).
Perhaps, as with UFO’s, there’s a lot more to Bigfoot in way of the light spectrum, and transparency, than ever previously imagined. Why hasn’t this information been deeply researched by most Bigfoot Investigators before now? Realize that most Cryptozoologists and/or Bigfoot researchers typically refuse to admit any connection with Bigfoot and UFO activity, let alone what they might have in common, but then they don’t ask their Bigfoot eye-witnesses if any strange lights or unidentifiable flying crafts, orbs, or the like, have been seen in the area either! How can all of the evidences be absorbed into a report if not all of the right questions are asked of the witness(es)? Witnesses may not even make the connection in their minds until the questions are asked of them, just as many Bigfoot researchers don’t make the connection. But the fact is that numerous ex-Bigfoot hunters or eyewitnesses have approached me, and others I know, in private to tell us of strange lights, orbs, or other unidentifiable craft which hovered among the trees, around lakes, etc., all occurring in direct Bigfoot country where many “giant ape-men” sightings occur continually.
What current Bigfoot Field Investigators can do to rectify this situation is to:
First – Ask the right questions to witnesses, and not rule out any other strange or unexpected activity in the area of Bigfoot sightings, unless, of course, a personal bias against the paranormal precludes unbiased scientific research to discover the true nature of something being thoroughly investigated. The scientific method demands such questions to be asked, and ethically processed, for the purpose of falsification. In essence, we would like to see MORE being done in Bigfoot research to find out the plausibility of the questions and the authenticity of any proclaimed answers regarding the famous two questions which this article addresses (visual disappearances, and lack of bodies, the latter of which we will be getting to shortly).
Second – A simple test at any fresh sighting location can be implemented to determine if induced transparency (actual or illusionary) is the explanation for Bigfoot disappearances… If Bigfoot is still there, but not apparent, his footprints should be visible after he “disappears.” If the footprints disappear also (leaving/following the spot where he visibly disappeared), that is information that could falsify any PPIT-like hypothesis. It would indicate that Bigfoot materially disappeared, and is not just illusionary. If it turns out that Bigfoot is actually disappearing/dematerializing then we must start looking to people in physics (e.g. college professors who deal in the theoretical, or research physicists who are working on this type of vanishing) such as Dr. Michio Kaku, Professor of Theoretical Physics at The City College of New York who was interviewed on the UFO television show by Peter Jennings recently. Although Dr. Kaku’s comments were directly about UFO’s and their occupants, the advice he gives is applicable to the situation of Bigfoot “walking into invisible walls” if it does turn out that their footprints disappear where they are witnessed to vanish. After all, who says there is a limit to where such “invisible walls,” or portals/wormholes can come or go? If not just in outer space, then why not on earth, which is also at a calculable point (address) in space? Think about that.
Dr. Michio Kaku, Professor of Theoretical Physics (The City College of New York) said: “Some people slam the door on the question of other civilizations visiting the Earth because distances are so vast. I say, Not so fast! The fundamental mistake people make when thinking about extraterrestrial intelligence is to assume that they’re just like us but a few hundred years more advanced. I say, Open your mind. Open your consciousness to the possibility that they are a million years more advanced. Einstein said you cannot go faster than the speed of light. However, he left a loophole open. You know in school we learned that a straight line is the shortest distance between two points. But actually that’s not true. You see, if you fold a sheet of paper and punch a hole through it, you begin to realize that a wormhole is the shortest distance between two points. Only those civilizations millions of years ahead of ours, capable of harnessing the power of billions of star systems have the ability to open gateways to space and time, to travel perhaps through portholes, to go these enormous distances in a blink of the eye. You simply cannot dismiss the possibility that some of these UFO sightings are actually sightings from some object created by an advanced civilization, a civilization far out in space, a civilization perhaps millions of years ahead of us. You simply cannot count out the possibility. When you look at this handful, handful of cases that cannot be easily dismissed, this is worthy, this is worthy of scientific investigation. Maybe there is nothing there. However, on the off chance there is something there, that would literally change the course of human history. So I say, let this investigation begin.” ABC News, Peter Jennings Special: UFOs - Seeing is Believing (25 February 2005).
Understand that UFO’s (where the UFO witnesses far outnumber Bigfoot sightings worldwide, although both Bigfoot, and other strange and large animals/beings are seen in association with UFO’s) and Bigfoot may or may not be related in any way except in the use of naturally occurring energies within and surrounding a certain environment. Magnetic and gravity anomalies within granitic plutons may be a part of this, if not for the magnetic properties themselves (for movement to other places via PPIT-like transparency), then perhaps for simple migration purposes, etc. (48). Some have proposed that Bigfoot creatures have been spotted on spacecraft and therefore are some form of a Chewbacca-like “spaceman”, but proof like that is hard in coming unless you are simply a “believer” of such (beliefs do not make facts, but should be based on the facts).
Bigfoot Intelligence – Where are the Bodies?
One last subject we’d like to bring up briefly (which also touches on the question of “Where are the bodies of Bigfoot?”), that we feel pertains to this subject is the obvious intelligence of Bigfoot, at least in some manner, especially regarding all of this talk about camouflage techniques so unique that many witnesses consider it to be actual invisibility. If Bigfoot can keep eluding mankind so effectively, and can possibly disappear or transmute via induced transparency in some fashion then we’d also suspect that he KNOWS what he is doing, and why.
Despite the grunts and howls that most people hear them emitting there are many reports worldwide of Bigfoot whistling, being an amazingly accurate animal and bird mimic, and even some accounts where Bigfoot mumbled copycat reflections of something a nearby human was saying out loud (Note that we have received this information directly via other Bigfoot researchers and witnesses and not from any written source). They may not be able to speak if their hyoid bone (in the neck) is located too high, such as in chimps and gorillas, and/or if Broca’s area of the brain is not developed – the part in humans dealing with speech capabilities. Plus, if in fact if the Bigfoot have a far more developed sixth sense (are psychic) then audible speech may not be a necessary/needed function, lest we assume too much of their “obvious lack of intelligence” as some would proclaim. A friend of my family had a daughter who was crippled and could not talk or walk and they considered her retarded for years before they realized she taught herself to read, was quite intelligent, and when given a computer could type out whatever she wanted to say! Similarly, we don’t understand the noises dolphins make and yet they are considered some of the smartest animals on earth and do have their own way of communicating, it’s just that we don’t understand or speak their “language” (49). So do Bigfoot and their kind have speech? Most are unsure yet, but we can at least ask ourselves… Are they intelligent in some fashion? I most definitely think so, especially if “intelligence” is based on even simple things like how to elude humans and not ever be caught!
The question on whether Bigfoot can talk or not may not be indicative of overall intelligence. As an example, please consider the well documented and investigated (by Professor Boris Porshnev and his successors Dimitri Bayanov and Igor Bourtsev plus Anthropologists M.A. Kolodievea & M. M. Gerasiomva) story of Zana – of the Almas in Russia – being caught in the 1880’s and mated with by human villagers (successfully creating offspring whose descendants continue on today) showed no speciation to humans even though her appearance was very ape-like, brutish, and robust, not to mention hairy over her entire body (50). She never did learn to speak and only grunted and made noises. Nonetheless, Zana eventually lived amongst the villagers “as one of them” until her death and burial. Zana, living in the wild before being caught and caged, may run parallel to human children who are raised in the wild and then later discovered, showing an inability to learn speech no matter how much training and teaching they received (51).
There is some speculation on whether Zana was a “living Neanderthal” but now that anthropologists know Neanderthal was a distinct species from modern humans there is some doubt being posed on that interpretation (52). Unlike the typical “caveman” connotation that people believe, we do know that Neanderthal was quite smart though (cranial capacities exceeding our own) having made tools (Mousterian) from bone, stone, antler, etc. and even producing and controlling fire, probably having the ability of speech, not to mention burial of their dead with accompanying flowers, very possibly indicating a belief in the afterlife, or of self-aware spirituality in some form (53). This advent of burial of their dead could have easily accompanied Zana and her type, or even Bigfoot, becoming a very quick and reliable answer to the question of why skeletons of Bigfoot never seem to be found, not to mention that even bodies above ground decay much faster (and get scavenged and picked apart) in acidic-soiled, forested environments, and where water, and hence moisture and bacteria, are plentiful (54). This interpretation of why we don’t find Bigfoot bodies/bones does not even include possibilities such as dematerialization during or after death (especially if they “come from somewhere else” and disintegrate back to their own realm/dimension/time/place if they die), or if other Bigfoot retrieve the bodies and take them back through portals, etc.
So how might Bigfoot compare to humans in intelligence? Interestingly, chimps, like the famous Washoe (knew 240+ signs), can also use sign language; however, the famous Bonobo (similar to a chimp) named Kanzi was taught to point to symbols (250 in number) on keyboards and also had a “vocabulary.” Even so, by 1991 six-year old Kanzi knew 90 lexigrams, and understood 200 spoken words and 650 sentences. Almost in contrast we can observe Koko, the worldwide-known gorilla, who has been taught to use American Sign Language (ASL), creates sentences and abstract thoughts/words on her own via these hand gestures, asked for and named her own cat “Smoky,” and currently uses over a 1,000 word vocabulary in all, plus she understands over 2,000 spoken words. Koko also scores between 85 and 95 on the Stanford-Binet IQ test, on a human scale a score of 100 is “normal” (55). Bigfoot has not, to our knowledge (although there is historical evidence in paintings, sculptures, literature, etc. that they were once at least partially integrated into society in the middle ages before being “wiped out,” etc. (56)), been subject to training or schooling to learn the human language(s). Bigfoot is obviously much closer to gorillas than chimpanzees in their looks and physiology, and likely even closer to humans than to gorillas based on their often human-ape facial features so commonly reported, erect bipedalism, opposable thumb, and more. Plus remember the common accounts that Bigfoot has a natural and well developed sixth sense as well, one that possibly exceeds most humans’, giving them quite an advantage over us (57).
Even though we have spoken mostly of Bigfoot here in this article, it by no means excludes the Canadian Sasquatch, the Russian/Asian Almas, or the Himalayan Yeti, nor the Australian Yowie, the Amazon Mapinguari or any other species/subspecies of hominoids found worldwide. As far as smarts go though, we look to the Australian Yowie, simply for the case of nothing more than this being the one and ONLY large erect biped which is a PLACENTAL MAMMAL of it’s kind (besides humans) on the entire face of Australia (assuming that evolutionary convergence (which is unlikely for non-placental mammals did not produce Yowies). Due to mammalian isolation and diversion we find placental mammals on every continent except Australia, and likewise typically only find marsupial (pouched, i.e. kangaroos) and monotreme (egg-laying, i.e. platypus) mammals on the Australian continent and not originating from anywhere else (58). The only placental mammals found in Australia are rodents and the dingo (a form of dog) both brought in artificially (they did not originate there), and bats which were thought to have flown in. What does this have to do with Bigfoot – or in this case Yowie – intelligence?
Of all the places around the world where variations of Bigfoot or Sasquatch are seen, it is the presence of Yowies in Australia that makes the message hit home far harder than anything else. More physical evidence needs to be documented for Yowies in Australia because it is well known by paleoanthropologists that only modern humans have inhabited the Australian continent. So where did Yowie come from? Are they genetic "throw-backs" from society that were cast out and living as nomads, fearful that their culture/people should ever encountered "regular people" again? Would this explain why they avoid people, camouflage themselves so well, and use covert and tactical maneuvers (i.e. nighttime travel, walking different routes so as not to create a trail -- this is used by militia who never make themselves "predictable," so they are not caught). If Yowies, and Bigfoot, etc. are indeed some extreme variation, or devolved (a misnomer) type of human then finding graves of these beings may or may not help us. If the split-off of Yowies, in particular, occurred in the early times of modern humans coming to Australia then has there been enough time for these changes to occur, even with genetic throw-backs and extreme variances occurring? Pretend for a moment that someone found some fossils (imagination) of Yowie in Australia, or what we thought could be related to Yowie. It is not known by examining the fossilized bones alone if these beings were hairy or covered only in skin, as we are today. It is said that no bones are ever found by anyone for Bigfoot or their kind, but, if they bury their dead then perhaps, from the past, these fossils ARE the evidence we are seeking, and just no recent bones have been uncovered, or fossilized, …yet! Remember that fossilization takes place only under certain circumstances of rapid burial, an anoxic condition (lack of oxygen), and where the soil properties are such that decomposition either does not take place or takes place very slowly. Due to hominoids typically living in areas that DO NOT PROMOTE fossilization, but decomposition instead, it makes it hard to find preserved bones! This is not a cop-out, but a FACT.
If hominoids are flesh and blood (F&B), and leave physical evidences such as footprints, hair, and rare fossilized bones, or bury their bodies, then the paranormal or inter-dimensional Bigfoot/Yowie seems to have a hard time fitting in, unless WHILE THEY ARE HERE they are 3-D and just as physically vulnerable as we are. People have shot at hominoids and they sometimes seem impervious to gunshots, other times they bleed, and there are a few cases of them being killed, but where are the bodies?. Perhaps, on the other side of a portal (if this be the case) they are just as physical? These are the kinds of answers we should be looking to answer. If no further or conclusive evidence of Yowies (past or present) can ever be located, verified, properly documented, and shared accordingly with other researchers and professionals and laymen alike, then how can we ever draw the line between a being that evolved there (unlikely), was brought in (by modern humans), and/or cast away from society, or is simply there due to some kind of psychic manifesting phenomena, otherworldly influences and/or inter-dimensional travel?
The question rings in our ears…. How did such a large placental mammal arrive in Australia (note that Bigfoot is also, amazingly, spotted on the island of Puerto Rico, most often in the mountain/tropical rainforest of El Yunque, along with UFO and chupacabra activity (61), also a site of igneous rock, fault lines, and lies next to the deepest submarine trench in the Atlantic ocean – which has the most negative gravity anomaly on earth (62))? Was he (Yowie) a separate species that has such similar traits to other hominoids around the world due to convergence (63)? Perhaps he was a more recent migratory species? Did he arrive through portals, or transparency-related phenomena? Something else? Perhaps, like humans, they have enough smarts to accomplish that kind of feat, even if it was by island hopping (swimming or making a floating “boat”?) after the continents divided. If it was by crossing a supposed land bridge then why have no other mammals done it too? Perhaps Yowies, unlike the rodents and dingoes, were not “brought in” but “came in” on their own. Since they are found near water so often it is not hard to conclude that they, unlike other species of the monkey or gorilla/ape family, do not fear walking through, or swimming in, or crossing bodies of water in some fashion (64). Remember that in Florida the well-known (and especially stinky) Skunk Ape must cross bodies of water, rivers, channels, sink holes in karst areas, and walk through entire swamps since that is the environment in which they live (65). This knowledge of Bigfoot not fearing, swimming, and crossing large bodies of water, is alone a subject worth investigation; however, we’ll leave that for another time and conclude this article with terrestrial Bigfoot in mind, his obvious intelligence, and alleged transparency abilities.
Even though we see evidences of Bigfoot, and their kind, very possibly having enough intelligence to accomplish some intriguing feats, the question remains on how Bigfoot disappears while still yet alive, and often in the presence of witnesses? I think that his unique physiology, chemistry, environment, and perhaps past knowledge (learned or discovered) all aid in his amazing ability to transmute or induce transparency/invisibility, even if only in the mind of the observer. So whether it’s connected with (or not) UFO’s nearby, PPIT-like transparency, H2S, granite-laden and geomagnetic areas, fault lines (which I consider to be like Bigfoot superhighways), decomposition of organic substances, caves, sinkholes, anaerobic bacteria producing sulfur, waterways, IR, UV, or ELF/VLF, etc. which help induce apparent invisibility for retreat or mobility, we are still curiously considering, and questioning, and attempting to find answers to the two major issues at hand.
Why hasn’t a single Bigfoot skeleton or body yet been found? Possible answers now include: burial and/or faster rates of decomposition based on habitat, or portal movement, or disintegration, with potential evidences from the past being the fossil record.
How in the world do they disappear like that!?! Possible answers now include: induced transparency and/or the appearance of such, going through time or locality-exchange portals, H2S “hypnosis” (only possible in some cases), and IR/UV/ELF/VLF (electromagnetic spectrum) camouflage.
These hypotheses are part of science, not “magic,” and perhaps may even explain some of the seemingly paranormal accounts of Bigfoot sightings worldwide… at least in part. Until a heavy load of field documentation is properly done around the globe, and compared, then all is still speculation. In essence, my own view of paranormal is just “outside of what is expected” so we now must look in new places for answers to old questions, because obviously the places we’ve been looking in up to now have all been – at least partially – wrong, or most Bigfoot researchers would be a lot further along by now!
I hope that I have brought to light some new information that can be used by others, preferably by serious Bigfoot Investigators, Cryptozoologists, Zoologists, Anthropologists, Biologists, Physicists, Chemists, and other Scientists, to help uncover this mystery and promote a final answer to these pending questions concerning our great Big-footed friends.
By Sharon Cornet © 2005-2012
NOTE: I would like to add that under no circumstances am I in favor of harming one of these great hairy beings to aid our understanding of their behaviors. Considering the implications of what and who they are as a species/subspecies (i.e. possible burial of their dead and/or a belief in an afterlife, their obvious pacifism, or their intelligence and fantastic ability to do things that defy us continually) we just simply cannot advocate the bringing of Bigfoot onto the lab table via a fatal flesh wound. Past records and accounts have shown that aggressive behavior, or territorial trespassing against Bigfoot has led to dangerous situations. I do not agree with provoking Bigfoot; I take a NO KILL stance.
I, Sharon Cornet (was "Eby"), am a mother of three children, with a genetic background of Anglo-Saxon-Celtic/Native American (1/5 Cherokee/Choctaw). I was, in the mid-2000's, the West Regional Leader for the Texas Bigfoot Research Center (TBRC) and also have done independent research on Bigfoot, UFO’s (also was a Saber “Dream Team” Member with Derrel Sims), alleged alien abductions, the paranormal, esoteric, and human spirituality. I have studied our earth (geology) and human origins (physical anthropology), and for several months in 2005 I volunteered at SaveTheChimps.org (Alamogordo, NM, owned by Anthropologist Jane Goodall) before they moved the chimps to an island in Florida. My BA degree is in social science and cultural anthropology. Have owned my own solar energy business; implement contract work in Administration, Community Development projects and web development, and presently reside in the Pacific Northwest area of Bothell (near Seattle) and continues bigfoot/paranormal research when I am not writing on my book(s). Sharon writes and speaks publicly on all topics ranging from her personal experiences, abductions and UFO’s, Bigfoot, Earth Lights (Marfa Lights), solar energy and alternative home design, spirituality (not religiosity), shamanism, and more. In 2012 my nephew Derek Eby, and I, made a Sasquatch/Bigfoot Sightings Map based on the BFRO database available at www.sunstar-solutions.com/BFmap.htm
Disclaimer: The evidences and hypotheses proposed in this article are from the research of its author and do not reflect on the views held by the TBRC, BFRO, Saber Enterprises, or their members. I reserve all rights to my personal research and its implications. If it is falsified, or not able to be, then we are that much closer to the truth! (updated 7/16/12)
There are now two Sasquatch/Bigfoot sightings maps available:
1) The PNW (Pacific Northwest) states of Washington, Oregon, and California
2) Central states of Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri
GO HERE TO GET YOUR BIGFOOT MAP--> http://www.sunstar-solutions.com/BFmap.htm
See my Bigfoot Map Facebook Page! https://www.facebook.com/pages/Sasquatch-Bigfoot-Sightings-Map/448769308487222 References and Notes
1. June 18, 2000, Andy Rennard, Bigfoot Field Researchers Organisation, Pre-Columbian and Early American Legends of Bigfoot-like Beings: http://www.bfro.net/legends/penutian2.htm
2. The Bigfoot Casebook, Janet & Colin Bord, 1982, New York: Granada Publishing, Data from “Chronological List of Bigfoot Sightings (1818-1980)": http://www.rfthomas.clara.net/cb/1961.html
3. Eby, Sharon; Unified Worlds; Desert Apes, West (Texas) Regional Bigfoot Sightings, Horizon City Bigfoot Sighting, Aug, 2003: http://www.unifiedworlds.com/desertapes.htm#Horizon%20Montanez
Texas Bigfoot Research Center, El Paso County TX Report, August 23, 2003: http://www.texasbigfoot.com/ElPaso1.html
4. The Psychic Sasquatch and Their UFO Connection, by Kewaunee Lapseritis, M.S.; Excerpt from The Psychic Sasquatch: http://www.unlimited-resources.com/bigfoot.html
5. Unified Worlds; Larry Kelm’s Bigfoot Sightings, December 30, 2004: http://www.unifiedworlds.com/BFlarrykelm.htm
6. Eby, Sharon; Unified Worlds; Desert Apes, West (Texas) Regional Bigfoot Sightings, Three Rivers Bigfoot Sighting, July 7, 2004: http://www.unifiedworlds.com/desertapes.htm#threerivers
7. Jon-Erik Beckjord,BA,MBA,The Bigfoot Investigation Project, RESULTS OF OUR TESTING OF BIGFOOT THEORY - BY USE OF FIELD WORK: http://www.beckjord.com/bigfoot/researchresults.html
8. The Royal Forum; Sasquatch and Hydrogen Sulfide, Astonishing Possibilities, May 5, 2005: http://www.royalforum.com/article.php?id=62
9. Absolute Astronomy, Reference, Hydrogen Sulfide: http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/encyclopedia/h/hy/hydrogen_sulfide.htm
10. Wikipedia; All words on hydrogen sulfide: http://www.allwords.org/hy/hydrogen-sulfide.html
11. Coles, Jack; Latest Quake Forecast Update from Jack, April 30, 2004: http://www.syzygyjob.net/jackcoles/messages/3910.shtml
12. Purlife; The Photosynthetic Process, John Whitmarsh, Govindjee: www.purlife.com/photosynthesis.htm
13. Balanced Lives Unlimited; The New Health Paradigm; Electric Nutrition, ElectricLife, 1999: http://www.balancedlives.net/What_is_Electric_Nutrition.htm
14. Total and Fecal Coliform Bacteria: https://www.securewebexchange.com/watertestinglabs.com/infosheets.html
15. Hydrogen Sulfide; June 2001, Fact Sheet, Environmental Health Programs; Office of Environmental Health Assessments: www.doh.wa.gov/ehp/oehas/hydrogen%20sulfide.doc
16. Investigations into the biology of Cueva de Villa Luz, near Tapijulapa, Tabasco, Mexico
Biological Team: Diana E. Northup, Penelope J. Boston, Michael N. Spilde, Kathleen H. Lavoie, Carlos A. Blanco Montero, Rebecca Kimball: http://www.i-pi.com/~diana/slime/vallaluz/
17. Eby, Sharon; Unified Worlds; Bigfoot-Geology Connection, Are Bigfoot Sightings Warnings of Geological Changes?: www.unifiedworlds.com/BFgeological.htm The Australian Yowie Research Center; Aboriginal Traditions Myths and Legend, March 16, 2003: http://www.theaustralianyowieresearchcenter.com/aboriginal_legends.html
Prihoda, Pearl Jo, OSAReal, Rock Mappings: http://hometown.aol.com/osareal/page3.html
THE KAPRE OF THE PHILIPPINES: http://www.n2.net/prey/bigfoot/creatures/kapre.htm
18. Australian Yowie Research; What is a Yowie?: http://www.yowiehunters.com/whatisayowie.php
19. Do Gorillas Have Enemies?: http://www.berggorilla.de/english/faq/dvers/fragen/feinde.html
Africa Dream Safaris, 2003; Gorilla Tracking Guidelines: http://www.africadreamsafaris.com/african-safari/gorilla/gorilla_guidelines.html
University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology; Animal Diversity Web; Gorilla gorilla beringei (mountain gorilla): http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Gorilla_gorilla_beringei.html
20. BFRO; Report #1068 (Class A), Submitted by witness J. J. on Tuesday, January 02, 2001; Two fisherman have daytime sighting above Huntington Lake: http://www.bfro.net/GDB/show_report.asp?id=1068
21. Bigfoot Powers: http://cryptozoo.monstrous.com/bigfoot_powers.htm
The Psychic Sasquatch and Their UFO Connection, by Kewaunee Lapseritis, M.S.; The Psychic Sasquatch: http://www.unlimited-resources.com/bigfoot.html
22. Mice put into "suspended animation" in U.S.; Medical Science News, Published: Friday, 22-Apr-2005: http://www.news-medical.net/?id=9427
23. Elanra; Fresh Air, The Worlds Life Support System: http://www.elanra.com/ions1.htm
24. Negative Ions; More Scientific Research: http://www.negativeiongenerators.com/negativeionsresearch.html
25. Paranormal and Ghost Society; Equipment Page: http://www.paranormalghostsociety.org/equipment.htm
26. The Explosives and Weapons Forum; Goiterjoe; July 3rd, 2001: http://www.roguesci.org/theforum/archive/index.php/t-1540
27. Bigfoot Transparency; PPIT, Photosynthetic Piezoelectric Induced Transparency (via H2S Hydrogen Sulfide), May 21, 2005: http://hometown.aol.com/osareal/page9.html
28. External source of electromagnetism, fault lines and or earthquakes:
29. Laws of Thermodynamics: http://www.physlink.com/Education/AskExperts/ae280.cfm
30. Jon-Erik Beckjord, Bigfoot Investigations Project; “Extranormal”: http://www.beckjord.com/bigfoot/
31. Bruce Cornet, Ph.D.; A Busy Night: http://bcornet.homestead.com/files/weirdsound.htm
Bruce Cornet, Ph.D. Reversed Doppler, Raw WAV Files: http://bcornet.homestead.com/files/Reversedop/reversedoppler.htm
Bruce Cornet, Ph.D.; FT over Richmond, Virginia; New Video Data Gives First Indication of a Stealth Body Form: http://bcornet.homestead.com/files/LynchFT/FT-VA.htm
32. Mexican Skies Full Of UFOs By Brit Elders: http://www.ufoarea.com/events_mexico.html
UFO’s Northwest; Mt. St. Helens, Washington, Pilot Takes Several Photos, UFOS Over Mt. St. Helens, February 22, 2005: http://www.ufosnw.com/sthelens022205.htm
33. Creatures Fantastic; Spirits of the Forest: http://www.ctvtravel.ca/shows/?mode=1&id=286
34. The Montauk Project; Written by Sean Rubinstein & Jonathan Kostecky: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Academy/7971/article2.html
Knocking On The Door Of Time, An Interview With Author Tim Swartz, By Sean Casteel: http://www.seancasteel.com/Knocking_On_The_Door_Of_Time.htm
35. Electromagnetic Spectrum Chart: http://geography.uoregon.edu/shinker/geog101/lectures/lec01/lec01_figs/electromagnetic-spectrum-fig2-6.gif
36. Rense; EXCLUSIVE, Mexican DoD Acknowledges UFOs In Mexico, Santiago Yturria: http://www.rense.com/general52/deff.htm
37. Bigfoot Forums – Infrared Camera Traps (see Paul1968UK at Nov 11 2002, 02:09 AM, and Arkansan at Nov 11 2002, 09:49 AM): http://www.bigfootforums.com/index.php?showtopic=2346&view=old
38. Dr. Cornet’s evidence of UAP diving into the earth or passing through trees: http://www.geocities.com/bcornet2001/PLATE_3.htm http://www.geocities.com/bcornet2001/PLATE_4.htm
39. Dr. Cornet photos of C-5 military aircraft disappearing and reappearing in an apparent unscheduled test while landing:
40. Dr. Cornet; The Phil and Lynn Martin Story, Dozens of AOP Converge on Hill and Disappear into Ground, 1999: http://bcornet.homestead.com/files/martinstory.htm
41. NASA UFOS - The Evidence, 1990s Space Shuttle Video Images of UFOs: http://groups.msn.com/nasaufos/_homepage.msnw?pgmarket=en-us
Invisible tiny UFO caught on chemical-imaging camera, Staff Reporter, Feb. 13, 2005: http://www.indiadaily.com/editorial/1600.asp
WEIRDNETDAILY; Infrared picks up invisible UFOs; Mexico releases video of 11 objects surrounding military plane, Posted: May 12, 2004: http://worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=38456
42. Welcome to the Realm of Natural VLF Radio Phenomena; "The (very beautiful) Music of the Magnetosphere and Space Weather", Stephen P. McGreevy, N6NKS, Last modified 30 December 2001: http://www.auroralchorus.com/natradio.htm
43. BBC News, England; Thursday, 26 September, 2002, 08:25 GMT 09:25 UK, 'Silent' concert causes mood swings: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/2278330.stm
44. ELEPHANT COMMUNICATION, 2002 Katherine Millett and Thomson Safaris, Inc.: http://www.thomsonsafaris.com/newsletter/nl35_elephant.htm
45. Texas Bigfoot Research Center; Dona Ana County NM Report, 2001: http://texasbigfoot.com/LasCruces1.html
From the Files of the Gulf Coast BigFoot Research Organization (G.C.B.R.O.), 2003: http://www.gcbro.com/MIshiaw0001.html
46. BFRO Report 945: Creature with red glowing eyes seen: www.bfro.net/GDB/show_report.asp?id=945
GCBRO; Bigfoot Sightings: www.gcbro.com/OHaug001.html
Bigfoot Research Organization: www.bigfootresearch.org/Bigfoot_Indiana.htm
Eby, Sharon; Unified Worlds, Eye Shine: http://unifiedworlds.com/eyeshine.htm
47. Taurine Drops or Capsules: http://www.eyesight.nu/taurine_info.html (thanks to Diane)
48. SOURCES OF GRAVITY AND MAGNETIC ANOMALIES: http://www.johnmartin.com/earthquakes/eqsafs/safs_915.htm
Preliminary Precambrian basement map of Colorado; A geologic interpretation of an aeromagnetic anomaly map By P.K. Sims, Viki Bankey, and C.A. Finn, Magnetic Patterns: http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2001/ofr-01-0364/colo_of_text.html
AEROMAGNETIC MAP OF THE COLORADO FRONT RANGE; http://www.geoperegrino.com/colorado_front_range_aeromag.html
Eby, Sharon; Unified Worlds; Desert Apes Migration Pattern: http://unifiedworlds.com/BFmigration.htm
49. Encyclopedia About Dolphins by Atlantida Cancun; COMMUNICATION AND ECHOLOCATION, Sound production: http://www.atlantidacancun.com/communications.asp
50. Almasti and Kaptars of Russia and Mongolia: http://members.axion.net/~a1b00267/ultranet/almasti.htm
World's Top Experts Conclude Sasquatch Exists, The Royal Forum Investigates: http://www.royalforum.com/article.php?id=46 (scroll to ¾ of the way down)
51. Feral Children: http://freaks.monstrous.com/feral_children.htm
52. Physical Anthropology Update; Philip L. Stein & Bruce M. Rowe; Number 6 Fall 1997: http://www.mhhe.com/socscience/anthropology/news/afall97.htm
53. Philip L Stein & Bruce M Rowe, Physical Anthropology The Core, 2nd Edition, 1998
The Japan Times, May 18, 1998, By HELEN PHILLIPS, Nature News Service; Nerve canal size suggests Neanderthals could talk: http://www.trussel.com/prehist/news66.htm
54. Bigfoot/Sasquatch Sightings in Texas: Correlations to Annual Rainfall Totals, Waterways, Human; Population Densities and Black Bear Habitat Zones, by Daryl G. Colyer: http://texasbigfoot.com/habitat.html
Pye, Lloyd, Intervention, Maps: http://lloydpye.com/flash/15-maps.swf
55. Washoe, Kanzi, and Koko (chimp/bonobo/gorilla) communication:
Philip L Stein & Bruce M Rowe, Physical Anthropology The Core, 2nd Edition, 1998
56. Prihoda, Pearl Jo; OSAReal, Forgive us, for we know not, what we have done: http://hometown.aol.com/prihodapearl/index.html
57. Bigfoot Types: http://cryptozoo.monstrous.com/bigfoot_types.htm
A long, long look at a Bigfoot! By Vance Orchard: http://www.bigfootencounters.com/articles/longlook.htm
58. Aussie-Info; Australian Fauna: http://www.aussie-info.com/identity/fauna/
Cartage; Themes > Science > Class Mammalia > Mammalian Classification: http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Sciences/Zoology/ClassMammalia/MammalianClassification/MammalianClassification.htm
59. Meganthropus: http://www.wikisearch.net/en/wikipedia/m/me/meganthropus.html OUTDATED! SEE ARTICLE BELOW...
60. Australian UFO/Unexplained Phenomena Researcher Rex Gilroy; NEW ZEALAND MYSTERY MAN-APES: http://homepage.powerup.com.au/~tkbnetw/Rex_Gilroy_8.htm
61. Bigfoot & UFO picture; Rense: http://www.rense.com/splashscreens/copyrighted_bigftL.jpg
M A C R O S C O P E; PARANORMAL MANIMALS IN LATIN AMERICA, by Scott Corrales: http://www.strangemag.com/paranormalanim.html
El Yunque: Nights On Hell Mountain, By: Scott Corrales: http://www.ufoarea.com/puerto_hell_night.html
62. The Puerto Rico Trench: Implications for Plate Tectonics and Earthquake and Tsunami Hazards, Uri ten Brink, Chief Scientist, U.S. Geological Survey: http://oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/03trench/trench/trench.html
NASA; Gravity by GRACE: http://www.csr.utexas.edu/grace/publications/litho/
Plate Tectonics: http://www.burdon.demon.co.uk/g12.htm
63. Wild and Hairy Men; The Greatest of the Great Apes? By David McBean: http://members.ozemail.com.au/~mhallett/Great%20Ape.htm
64. Homo erectus soloensis: http://www.wikisearch.net/en/wikipedia/h/ho/homo_erectus_soloensis.html
The Bigfoot Casebook, Janet & Colin Bord, 1982, New York: Granada Publishing, Data from “Chronological List of Bigfoot Sightings (1818-1980)" (July 1965 Jack Taylor at Nr Butedale, BC; and Sept 1967 . Carol Davis from Nr Bellingham, WA; and 1970 two fisherman in Lake nr Priest Lake, ID): http://www.rfthomas.clara.net/cb/1961.html
The Bongo Gorilla Group Website; The Group; The Island: http://www.gorillas.nl/group.html
65. May. 07, 2005; Man keeps Florida Skunk Ape legend alive, CARA BUCKLEY, Associated Press: http://www.bradenton.com/mld/bradenton/news/local/11590336.htm
IT'S BIG, IT'S HAIRY, IT'S SKUNK APE; Dateline: OCHOPEE, By Tom Bayles THE ASSOCIATED PRESS: http://www.bigfootencounters.com/articles/ochopee2.htm